Over the years contracts for professional football players have developed significantly but what’s the link to the exam syllabus?
Agency theory (included in papers such as ACCA F9) occurs when one party (the principal), employs another party (the agent), to perform a task or tasks on their behalf. Within this theory there is always a danger that the objectives of the two parties may not coincide and there may be problems with what is known as goal congruence.
Typically agency theory would apply to the relationship between shareholders and management. However, there is an argument that a form of agency theory could apply between management as the principal and an employee as the agent.
I’m a keen follower of football (soccer) and the contracts of professional players are becoming ever more complicated. In the “old days” the contracts would be very simple affairs with a monthly salary, a time limit to the contracts and maybe a team bonus if the team won a competition.
Nowadays football is big business. For example, Cristiano Ronaldo’s move last year from Manchester United to Real Madrid was for a new world record in terms of transfer fees (£80m) and his annual remuneration from Real Madrid alone will be in the region of £11m per year.
I’ve no idea what Ronaldo’s contract is like but my guess is that most professional football contracts have various measures built in to ensure that there is goal congruence.
Ideas for items that could be included within football contracts to help goal congruence include:
– Bonuses based on number of games played (i.e. the player will only get these if he is performing well and is in the team),
– Bonuses based on international appearances (this is independent confirmation that he is performing well)
– Penalty provisions for undertaking activities that could cause injuries (e.g. bungee jumping or extreme sports).
All of the above would help in ensuring goal congruence.
Always keep an eye open in real life for any situations where goal congruence is present. If you can link real life situations you come across with the exam syllabus it will help you retain the knowledge needed for exam success.
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2010-01-25 03:34:222010-01-25 03:34:22So what have football players’ contracts got to do with the exams?
I bumped into an old friend of mine that I haven’t seen for nearly a year the other day. He’s a really good guy and I’ve known him a long time. We were chatting over a coffee and the subject of Grand Prix motor racing came up. He’s a keen follower of the sport and was excited by the prospect of Jenson Button joining Lewis Hamilton on the McLaren team. He was even more excited in that he was planning a trip to the Monaco Grand Prix this coming May with a group of friends. It was a lifelong ambition of his to make the trip to Monaco to see the Grand Prix and he’s been lucky enough to secure some tickets for the Grand Prix in May.
I was excited for him and, if I’m honest, slightly jealous! Having said that, May is always a busy month for us tutors so I’m not sure I’d be able to get the time off to join him. In fact, the closest I’ll get to Monaco in May is the Monte Carlo simulation model which as every good P4 student knows is a model that uses probability distribution analysis to analyze the possible outcomes of a project. It is built on the simultaneous changes of many variables, the relationships between these variables being defined in advance, e.g. if price is reduced, how much demand may go up. (Monte Carlo is also a district within Monaco!).
Now, I love teaching P4 and explaining the mechanics of the Monte Carlo simulation is good fun but I must admit that if a spare ticket does comes up then the joys of teaching the Monte Carlo model may have to take a back seat to the joys of watching the Grand Prix!
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2010-01-20 19:31:262010-01-20 19:31:26Monte Carlo or bust.
One item that people should be aware of is that management accounting and financial management are similar to the extent that they are both concerned with resource usage. But there are differences.
I was lucky enough to have recently flown on the new Airbus A380 super jumbo and that got me thinking about some of the financial management issues that Airbus face. Designing and producing the A380 must have been a phenomenal exercise and a real testament to man’s engineering skills. It’s capable of carrying over 800 passengers and has a range of nearly 15,000 km. It’s a fantastic machine.
But what has this all got to do with the difference between management accounting and financial management? One difference is that management accounting tends to deal in short-term timescales whereas financial management is generally more concerned with the longer term. Whilst the longer term is generally considered to be more than one year be aware that certain industries and companies have a distinctly longer “long-term”.
From inception to delivery the A380 took nearly 10 years and the long term view taken by Airbus is certainly longer than some businesses in for example the IT or fashion industries. Some of the businesses in these industries have distinctly shorter “long-terms”.
Anyway, despite the millions spent on design and development of the A380 there was one disappointing thing about my flight and that was I fell asleep during the film and missed the ending…
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2010-01-18 18:41:062010-01-18 18:41:06Remember the short term and long term
F9 and P4 students should be aware that there are a variety of ways to raise finance (see chapter 4 of our free F9 ExPress notes. One method is by way of a rights issue where a company issues new shares and sells them to existing shareholders. Shareholders are not obliged to buy them but merely have the “right” to buy them. By being given the “right” they have the security of knowing that their shareholding won’t be diluted by shares being issued to other shareholders without first being offered them.
The Lloyds Banking Group has recently announced the UK’s largest ever rights issue and the bank hopes to raise over £13 billion. Press reports state that the main reason behind the rights issue is to raise sufficient funds to avoid the bank having to take part in the government’s banking insurance scheme that was set up after the recent banking troubles in the UK.
This is going to be an interesting one to watch. Lloyds has nearly 3 million shareholders with the majority being private shareholders. Whether or not these shareholders will be willing to take up these rights remains to be seen. They are due to meet to approve it this coming Thursday. In the run up to the exam though I’m sure students will have more to worry about than the outcome of this vote but make sure you’re aware of the various finance raising methods for the exam!
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2009-11-29 18:43:402009-11-29 18:43:40The Biggest Rights Issue in UK history
Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) are an important part of the ACCA P4 syllabus and are also featured in CIMA F3. Those of you that have read our free ExPress notes (/expand/17-p4_advanced_financial_management.html) will be aware that to minimize the risk of failure in the M&A process, acquiring companies should follow a systematic series of steps prior to launching a bid.
1. Clarify strategic reasons for wanting to acquire a company;
2. Draw up a short list of possible takeover targets and select the preferred one;
3. Value the target based on publicly available information and to establish an opening bid;
4. Identify financing options for the transaction
There has been a lot of coverage recently about the attempt by the American food producer Kraft to acquire the British chocolate maker Cadbury. After Kraft announced their intention to acquire Cadbury, another company (Hersey) announced their interest in acquiring Cadbury.
The sums of money involved are significant. Identifying financing options for the acquisition (point 4 above) is therefore going to be key. Kraft’s bid is £9.8bn and press reports indicate that a syndicate of 8 banks has been brought together to finance the approach. The interesting thing though is that it is reported that these 8 banks have been tied into a non-compete agreement. This means that Hersey cannot approach the same banks to finance their approach. As a result it is going to be more difficult for Hersey to raise such amounts of funds.
Whatever happens over the next few weeks this will be an interesting story to follow.
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2009-11-18 19:28:032009-11-18 19:28:03Anyone got a spare £9.8bn ?
As you prepare the themes in the final section of the P4 syllabus guide (“emerging themes”) it might be interesting to know that after a recent trip to Zurich, Switzerland, I asked my friends in the financial industry what was happening these days after all the drama of the bailouts and credit crunches.
They told me that life is getting back to “normal”: the banks are making money again; he said: “the bonuses will be back: borrowing at 0% from the central banks and investing in corporate bonds at 1% and 2% means unlimited, riskless profit… nothing has changed, except that there are fewer banks, making larger profits.”
The French have a saying: “Plus ça change, plus c’est la meme chose” (the more things change, the more they stay the same).
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2009-11-11 19:22:232009-11-11 19:22:23Is life getting back to normal?
Those of you who enjoyed the corporate governance parts of ACCA and CIMA may be interested – or excited, or irritated, depending on your point of view! – to know that the US Congress is considering legislation requiring the roles of the Chairman and the Chief Executive Officer to be split between two people.
This is big stuff. Why, you must be thinking, that is precisely the recommendation (read: requirement, hint, hint) of the Combined Code in the UK, and this feature distinguished it from the American Sarbanes Oxley law, which never mentioned such a split.
The reason is cultural: the Americans have always believed that one guy has to be in charge of a company, whether his name is Jack Welsh (General Electric) or, in an earlier age, Harold Geneen (of ATT).
In his book, “The Age of Turbulence” Alan Greenspan endorses this “John Wayne” approach to management. One guy in charge is the way to go. And now, after all the controversy on corporate mismanagement, bailouts and excessive executive remuneration, Congress is looking at … requiring the separation of the Chairman and CEO roles at US companies.
Watch this space…
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2009-11-04 19:21:022009-11-04 19:21:02Corporate governance across the Atlantic.
The other day I was talking to a few local business owners and I asked them if they knew what their cost of capital was. I got a few blank stares.
When we discussed the issue further, people started to warm up to the idea that the cost of capital can be viewed in terms of opportunity costs:
1. One owner said his cost of capital was the interest rate on his bank loans. I suppose he was 100% debt financed and probably not planning to refinance any time soon! Good luck to him!
2. A second owner said he took out all his savings from the bank and put it into his business. Since the bank deposit rate was so low, he figured his opportunity cost was pretty low as well. He has a point, though he must realize that he has moved into a higher risk category by withdrawing his money from the bank and investing it in a start-up business.
3. Another business owner said he started his company by borrowing from his relatives. Since they haven’t asked for it back he assumes its cost is zero. But he does pay a price, I suppose: at family gatherings he gets dirty looks from his relatives and his wife gives him constant grief. He suspects that the relatives complain about him to his wife.
Since all three owners want to expand their businesses, they asked me if I could recommend new sources of finance. I thought of sending them to our P4 candidates (after the exam!).
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2009-09-26 19:25:522009-09-26 19:25:52Do you know your cost of capital?
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