On Monday it was reported that China’s Bright Food Group was investigating the potential purchase of Britain’s United Biscuits for up to £2.5 billion.
Whilst on the face of it one food company buying another food company isn’t that exciting it does raise some interesting points.
Importantly, it also makes you think of whether Jaffa Cakes are in fact biscuits rather than cakes…
First of all though in classic Michael Porter’s Competitive Advantage of Nations terms then particular countries are considered to be strong in certain industries.
Germany for example is renowned for the production of high powered cars such as Audi, BMW and Porsche. Japan is a world leader in high tech cameras such as Canon, Nikon and Pentax.
Britain on the other hand is a powerhouse in the production of biscuits. After all, who needs luxury cars and high tech cameras when you can have a lovely cup of tea with a nice biscuit or two?
Secondly, the fact that another company from a so called emerging market is now potentially making a significant acquisition of a company in a more developed market sends an interesting signal about the current trend of globalisation.
Both these points are all very well and good but what’s this all about a biscuit or cake discussion?
United Biscuits produce some household name products including McVitie’s biscuits, Hula Hoops and Twiglets. They also produce Jaffa Cakes.
Jaffa Cakes were the subject of an infamous tax case a few years ago. To cut a long story short the debate was whether a Jaffa Cake was a cake (considered to be a basic foodstuff and hence not liable to VAT) or a chocolate covered biscuit (considered to be a luxury food product and hence liable for lots of VAT).
So, how on earth can you decide whether a food product is a cake or a biscuit?
The deciding factor was that when a cake is left to go stale it gets hard whereas when a biscuit is left to go stale it goes soft.
The argument went to a VAT tribunal (which is in effect a type of Court) and as part of the evidence put forward a 30cm Jaffa Cake was baked and left to go stale (and hard) so as to convince the tribunal that it was in fact a cake.
The final result was that Jaffa Cakes are indeed cakes so you can now have your cake and eat it (VAT free).
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2010-10-01 04:23:262010-10-01 04:23:26£2.5 billion but can you have your cake and eat it?
Last week one of the top policemen in the UK admitted to getting discounted flights for his family by using air miles obtained on tax payer funded flights.
John Yates, who is the Assistant Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police (i.e. the Greater London Police), is entitled to fly business class on official trips abroad. This enables him to amass significant amounts of air miles which can then be used for free flights in the future.
With a nice corporate governance angle the rules of the Metropolitan Police say that these air miles must be used for future work related flights and not personal ones. In what he claimed was an oversight, Mr Yates however used these air miles for a number of personal flights.
I’m sure it was the last thing on Mr Yates mind but from the Airline’s point of view, the provision of air miles can involve big figures.
The IFRS Interpretation Committee (formerly known as IFRIC) didn’t make many friends when they wrote IFRIC 13: Loyalty Programmes.
Broadly, IFRIC 13 says that when you are given loyalty programme points by a business, they have to recognise a proportion of the total sale to you as a sale of loyalty points. In other words, they are buying your loyalty, rather than rewarding it.
This means that each sale has to be unbundled into two components – a sale of loyalty points at the value to the customer (which is likely to be very much higher than the cost of delivering the promised service) and the underlying sale itself.
As the loyalty points are used up or expire, the deferred revenue from loyalty points sold is recognised as revenue.
Previously, the accounting policy of most companies had been to recognise loyalty costs as a provision at the expected marginal cost of delivering the service.
This can be a fairly significant figure. By “fairly significant”, we naturally mean “completely massive”. Have a guess what the effect was on shareholders’ equity in the restated 2008 accounts of British Airways for implementation of IFRIC 13.
The answer is £206 million. Nope, that’s not a typo; getting towards a quarter of a billion British Pounds. Ouch.
We at ExP travel fairly a lot for work and we’ve noticed that airline loyalty programmes have become a little less generous of late. Maybe the new accounting rules are something to do with this?
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2010-09-29 23:35:222010-09-29 23:35:22How much does it cost to buy your loyalty?
On Saturday Apple officially launched the iPhone 4 in China. They also opened up two new flagship stores in Shanghai and Beijing.
China is the world’s largest mobile market with more than 800 million subscribers so it would seem to make sense that Apple sell their products there.
Why has is taken them so long to launch the iPhone 4 in China though? After all, the iPhone 4 was originally launched in the US back in June and in countries such as Australia, Netherlands and Singapore in July.
The handsets themselves are manufactured in China so it’s not as though they haven’t had any experience of doing business in the country.
There are various reasons why companies have phased product roll outs in different countries. The sheer scale of a “global launch” for a company like Apple would be extremely challenging. Having sufficient inventory in stock on global launch day would not only be a logistical nightmare but would probably be physically impossible.
An additional challenge for Apple is that they need to agree matters with their strategic communication service providers in each territory (in other words, the mobile phone operator they will be partnering with in each particular country). This also takes time.
Anyway, from now onwards we’ll be seeing the iPhone 4 in China but anyone that has been to China recently though could be forgiven for thinking that the iPhone 4 has already been in the country for a while.
A significant issue for Apple is the increase in the number of iPhone clone companies.
As well as clone companies that produce illegal fake copies of the phone there are also businesses that produce reasonable quality phones which are very similar to the iPhone. They are designed so that they try not to break any patent protection that Apple has set up. I’m sure though that Apple’s patent lawyers are monitoring these products very closely!
A quick search on the internet for example shows websites selling products such as the HiPhone, the Ephone and the Ciphone. With prices starting at less than $100 there will be a significant number of people opting for these items.
Oh, and in case you were wondering the photo above is of the Hiphone.
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2010-09-27 03:35:162010-09-27 03:35:16Do you own a iPhone or is it a Hiphone, an Ephone or a Ciphone?
Tesco, one of the leading UK supermarkets, will commence selling the erectile dysfunction drug Viagra.
Viagra has been a huge success for Pfizer. It’s one of their blockbuster drugs and millions of the little blue tablets have been sold over the last 10 years.
One of the drawbacks though for a lot of men that want the drug is where to get hold of it from. In the UK you generally need either a doctors prescription or to risk buying it from potentially suspect internet sites.
Tesco are one of the most successful supermarket chains in the world. In strategic Ansoff’s Matrix terminology they have done very well with market development (4,811 stores in 14 countries with an amazing 2,482 stores in the UK alone) together with product development (an estimated 40,000 product lines ranging from pizza to petrol to perfume).
Tesco are about to add another product line to their offerings and from next Monday shoppers will be able to pick up Viagra from over 300 Tesco stores.
As finance people we know all about the challenge of getting pricing decisions right.
Tesco are not the first mainstream chain of stores to stock Viagra. Last year, the high street chemist Boots became the first store in the UK to sell Viagra without a prescription. You can currently buy 4 of the blue pills from Boots for £55.
A price skimming or premium pricing strategy for Tesco wouldn’t really work as the Viagra market is a mature market. Tesco has instead undertaken a classic penetration pricing strategy whereby they price the product at an attractive price with the aim of growing its market share.
From Monday, you will be able to buy 8 of the blue pills at Tesco for £52.
Whilst the per tablet charge at Tesco is a lot lower than what can be found at Boots, £52 is still a significant amount of money. There’s a recession on and times are hard for a lot of people. Only time will tell whether Tesco made the correct pricing decision.
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2010-09-24 20:55:512010-09-24 20:55:51Is this your shopping list: bread, milk, eggs and Viagra?
Things have changed. You won’t be hearing much about PricewaterhouseCoopers any more.
Is this breaking news? Does this mean that we will be talking about the Big 3 rather than the Big 4?
Should PricewaterhouseCoopers partners and staff be rushing to recruitment consultants to get another job?
There’s no need to panic as all is well with the company. What they have done though is undertaken a rebranding exercise.
The company has commonly been referred to as PwC since it was established via a merger back in 1998 between Price Waterhouse and Coopers & Lybrand. With effect from Monday though they will now officially go by the name of pwc.
As part of a multi-million pound make over not only will the company be known as pwc but the corporate logo and corporate colours have changed.
The new logo incorporates the letters “pwc” in lower case along with a 6 rectangle symbol in shades of orange and red.
According to pwc, the brand was refreshed “in order to strengthen, and modernise how it represents its worldwide network to its clients, its people and the communities in which it operates.”
Global brand consultants Wolff Olins designed the logo in collaboration with PwC employees and clients. The complete rebranding process reportedly took two years.
From a personal point of view, I like the new logo and orange/red spectrum colours which I think are nice fresh, clean colours.
What about people from some of the other accounting firms? My guess is that they must be relieved. With KPMG having blue/white, Ernst & Young black/yellow and Deloitte navy/green it must have been a relief all round that pwc went for orange/red.
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2010-09-22 16:41:062010-09-22 16:41:06Has the Big 4 become the Big 3?
At this year’s San Francisco World Spirits Competition the best Vodka in the world award was won by a small distillery based in rural England in Herefordshire. Chase Vodka beat off 115 other entries to win.
This is a superb achievement by them.
I’ve been lucky enough to try some of the vodka. It’s certainly very nice and I have to say I think their award was thoroughly deserved. I hasten to add though that I haven’t tasted the other 115 vodkas so can’t really give an unbiased view!
Chase vodka has got a rather unusual background. It was founded by local potato farmer William Chase. Now William certainly knows a thing or two about potatos. He was the person that founded the upmarket potato crisp company Tyrrells.
Tyrrell’s crisps were only launched 8 years ago in 2002. In classic strategy terminology they were very much promoted on the differentiated manner as being of a better class of crisp, being hand crafted and a top quality product. His passion for potatos paid off and in 2008 he sold 75% of the crisp brand for a rather tasty £40 million.
Not content with sailing the world on his personal yacht or buying a private island to retire to he built on his core competencies and developed his love of potatos into another upmarket brand but this time to be enjoyed by adults only.
Again, using strategy speak the chase vodka business is nicely vertically integrated with the potatos being grown on the farm as well as the distillery and the bottling process being in the same location.
It’s not cheap – retailing at £32.95 it is over 3 times as expensive as the supermarket own brands but it’s hand crafted by a small team of workers and each bottle is reportedly made out of 250 top quality potatos. Comparing this with the mass market vodkas made out of left over grain then you can see why the pricing is different.
Using Ansoff’s matrix terminology they have also undertaken rather nice product development and launched a limited edition Marmalade Vodka.
Now, for me a lovely breakfast is a fresh pot of tea with some nice toast and marmalade. Should I be rethinking things though so that I opt for Marmalade Vodka instead?
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2010-09-10 19:19:472010-09-10 19:19:47Forget the great Polish and Russian vodkas, the best vodka in the world is officially English. Now, go and open a packet of crisps to celebrate.
PricewaterhouseCoopers is a great company. It’s one of the top companies in the world and it’s also a truly global company. The latest reported figures show over 160,000 PwC people working around the world including 8,500 partners.
First of all the good news. Their turnover in the UK rose 4% to £2.33 billion.
Their profit before tax in the UK however fell 3% to £665 million.
This fall in profit was put down to some significant investment during the year including recruiting 1,750 staff, appointing 57 new partners and moving into a new environmentally friendly office in London (incidentally, there’s a previous blog entry on the proximity of a PwC office to a Ernst & Young office here).
As maybe a positive sign on their view as to which direction the economy is heading they also stated that they were planning on creating 800 new jobs in the UK over the next year as well as continuing with their significant graduate recruitment by taking on 1,200 new graduate level joiners.
Now onto the exciting bit that I’m sure lots of people are interested in and that is what is the average payout for each of the 820 PwC UK partners?
Although it was down by 2% on the previous year it was still a healthy average figure of £759,000 per partner.
PwC’s UK chairman, Ian Powell, was reported as receiving £3.6 million.
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2010-09-08 18:20:412010-09-08 18:20:41PwC in the UK have just released their results. So how much did each partner make?
Toys R Us is one of the largest toy store chains in the world.
It’s very successful and has nearly 1,300 stores around the world. What it didn’t have though was a strong internal control system in their UK purchase ledger department.
Between 2006 and 2008, married father of two and accounts payable manager Paul Hopes made over 20 illegal payments ranging from £100,000 to £300,000 to bank accounts of fictitious toy suppliers in the Far East which he had set up himself.
The £3.7 million of illicit money was then spent on various items. One of Mr Hopes favourite methods of spending the money was on Wednesday nights when he would regularly entertain 2 prostitutes at luxury hotel suites.
As well as paying for their time and energy he also bought them a string of luxury cars including a Bentley, Toyota Land Cruiser and a BMW M3 (incidentally, his wife was at the time driving the family Ford Mondeo).
In total he spent nearly £2.5 million on the two prostitutes.
It all came to a sticky ending for Mr Hopes though as he was sentenced to 7 years in jail.
What is interesting about the sentencing is that under the Proceeds of Crime Act the Judge ordered Mr Hopes to repay £3.4 million of the £3.7 million stolen. If he fails to repay the £3.4 million then an additional 10 years will be added to his 7 year sentence. At the end of the 17 year sentence he will still be obliged to repay the £3.4 million.
Now, remember that Mr Hopes is an Accountant so I’m sure he’s an expert in double entry but even the best bookkeeping skills won’t be able to make “income” of £3.7 million minus “expenses” of £2.5 million equal a balance of £3.4 million.
I guess he’s hoping that these two particular ladies are now desperately trying to find him every Wednesday evening to give him the money back.
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2010-09-06 02:59:052010-09-06 02:59:05Look out for two prostitutes, £3.7 million of stolen cash and a 58 year old accountant at your local Toys R Us store.
As one of the best known and most successful companies in the world Proctor & Gamble certainly know a thing or two about branding. It also seems that they are pretty switched on when it comes to risk.
Over in the States, American Football is huge. One of the most well known players is Pittsburgh Steelers player Troy Polamalu.
Anyone that has watched a game that he has played in will instantly recognise him. He has very distinctive hair.
He is of Samoan descent and has not cut his hair for 7 years. Far from being in bad condition though his hair is in excellent condition and his flowing locks would no doubt make many a woman jealous.
P&G make the famous Head & Shoulders shampoo and when deciding on a suitable person to promote the product settled on Polamalu. If you’re interested you can even play a Polamalinator game here.
No details have been disclosed of how much he’s been paid for the sponsorship deal but it’s no doubt a significant amount.
Successful, healthy, sporty and a sex symbol to a lot of women in America meant that he was the ideal person for promoting Head & Shoulders and the return was no doubt there.
“Risk and Return” is an issue that is involved in all major decisions within business. Whilst the return is there with Polamalu what about the risk?
P&G seem to think that one of the risks is in the loss or damage to his famous hair. They announced earlier this week that they had just insured his hair for $1 million. Apparently if Polamalu loses 66% or more of his hair during the next 7 months then Lloyds of London insurance will pay out $1 million.
So, the branding works well. Risk seems to be covered but what about the legal aspects? Did anyone check the small print to the contract as to whether a haircut is allowed during the next 7 months? I hope so otherwise it could very well be the most expensive haircut in history.
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2010-09-03 05:03:582010-09-03 05:03:58Hair today, gone tomorrow? It’s certainly a risk for Procter & Gamble.
Bethany Hare is a remarkable young lady. She’s only 10 years old and wanted to raise money for a local children’s hospice.
She came up with the idea of dressing up as Charlie Chaplin, singing the song “Smile” (the theme from Chaplin’s 1936 film “Modern Times”) and then posting it on a charity website.
She was aiming to raise £5,500 and it all started well with people appreciating the effort she had put in and making donations.
She was then contacted by New York based Bourne Music Publishers, who own the rights to the song. Several discussions between Bethany’s mum and the Publishers later and the end result was that Bethany was told that she must either remove the song or pay a license fee of $2,000 to keep it online for one year plus a further $250 every time she performs it in public.
This is a lot of money for a little girl of 10 years old to pay to a big music publisher especially when she’s trying to raise £5,500 for terminally ill children. Bethany removed the song from her video and in true Chaplin style ran it as a “silent movie”.
A lot of people will question the approach taken by Bourne Music.
Mendelow’s Matrix is a method of analysing stakeholders in a business. According to this model the stakeholders that management should really look after are the “key players” (high interest / high power). Bethany falls within the low interest / low power quadrant of Bourne Music’s matrix and hence the theory goes that they can employ “minimal effort” to this category.
Some would argue that they had a duty to protect the song and obtain all the royalties they could from it but it seemed obvious that Bethany was never going to pay that sort of money.
This story has however got a happy ending. Ben Model from Silent Clowns in New York wrote a piano score especially for Bethany to use and she has now reached her money raising target. Bethany’s performance can be seen here.
I’ll leave it up to you to decide who you think are the good guys and the bad guys in this story. My view is that the title of the song in debate was “Smile” and I’m pretty certain that not a lot of people were smiling when they heard the approach taken by the Publishers.
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2010-08-27 13:09:452010-08-27 13:09:45I take my hat off to Bethany Hare, Charlie Chaplin and Mendelow's Matrix but should I be smiling?
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