Those of you who enjoyed the corporate governance parts of ACCA and CIMA may be interested – or excited, or irritated, depending on your point of view! – to know that the US Congress is considering legislation requiring the roles of the Chairman and the Chief Executive Officer to be split between two people.
This is big stuff. Why, you must be thinking, that is precisely the recommendation (read: requirement, hint, hint) of the Combined Code in the UK, and this feature distinguished it from the American Sarbanes Oxley law, which never mentioned such a split.
The reason is cultural: the Americans have always believed that one guy has to be in charge of a company, whether his name is Jack Welsh (General Electric) or, in an earlier age, Harold Geneen (of ATT).
In his book, “The Age of Turbulence” Alan Greenspan endorses this “John Wayne” approach to management. One guy in charge is the way to go. And now, after all the controversy on corporate mismanagement, bailouts and excessive executive remuneration, Congress is looking at … requiring the separation of the Chairman and CEO roles at US companies.
Watch this space…
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2009-11-04 19:21:022009-11-04 19:21:02Corporate governance across the Atlantic.
Bernie Madoff is in prison and he handsomely deserves to be. Over years, he ran a private investment fund that took deposits from rich investors and delivered consistently great returns of 10% real terms each year or more.
The only problem is that the whole thing was a vast fraud. He was stealing funds and using new depositors’ funds to hide the hole his pilfering was creating. It’s called a ponzi scheme and is strictly illegal. Total investor losses are estimated to be in the region of £18 billion.
Can you even imagine such a figure?
The question is – how did he get away with it? There’s no single answer, but these features are significant:
• There was a very excessive degree of authority and power vested in one man (Bernard Madoff himself).
• There was a lack of scrutiny by directors and senior management and investors themselves.
• A whistleblower had contacted the regulator ten years before the scandal broke saying that the returns made were mathematically impossible. The regulator did nothing.
• The auditor was too close to the client and generally showed a deep lack of professional scepticism.
So, Madoff was a colossal failure of corporate governance. Almost every significant principle of the Combined Code was broken. Yet this happened in the USA – home to the stringent Sarbanes-Oxley Act. How could this happen? Well, SOx only applies to listed companies and Madoff was a private equity investment, so outside its scope. There appeared to be no appetite for voluntary compliance with best practice.
Perhaps the biggest lesson is that when investors are being given apparently huge returns, they become unwilling to ask questions. Indeed, investors who asked too many questions were dropped by Madoff as being a nuisance. Maybe the victims of the Madoff scandal became victims of their own credulousness and greed?
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2009-10-11 18:55:512009-10-11 18:55:51How could Bernie Madoff make off with so much cash?
You may have heard of easyJet. You may have flown with easyJet. You may be Stelios, in which case the public thinks that you own easyJet, but you actually only own a minority interest. The public also thinks that you’re the CEO, but actually you’re not even an executive director.
What you do own, if you happen to be Sir Stelios Haji-Ioannou is approximately 66 million easyJet shares and the easyJet brand, which you licence to easyJet.
Sir Stelios is the public face of a company that he founded and grew to a state of financial health where it could buy its most bitter rival, list on the London Stock Exchange and generally grow up rather quickly. He resigned as an executive director in 2003, becoming a non-executive.
In 2008/09, he had a major difference of opinion with the executive directors over the strategy of the company. Having been outvoted, Sir Stelios (a non-executive director, remember) sought to increase his equity ownership of the company again to a level where he could appoint some favoured nominees of his own as executive directors; thus giving him (a non-executive director) effective control once again.
Sir Stelios was naturally acting in the best interests of the company as he saw them. The Tyson report lists four duties of a non-executive director (see our ExPress notes if these don’t trip off your tongue! /expand/14-p1_professional_accountant.html) These include scrutinising executives, but not sacking them if they disagree.
It all makes it easier to see why the UK Combined Code requires that non-executives should be paid a basic salary only and have no shares or share options in the company, as well as requiring you to wait at least five years outside the company if you’d previously been a senior executive there!
https://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.png00Stevehttps://www.theexpgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/styleguide-EXP-4.pngSteve2009-10-07 18:51:142009-10-07 18:51:14When is a non-executive not a non-executive? Ask Stelios!
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