Published on: 07 Nov 2011
Last Friday Groupon raised $700 million in its initial public offering (IPO).
Some of you may have heard of Groupon. It’s done remarkably well in the 3 years since it started in 2008 and now has over 100 million users.
It’s a daily deal site whereby people sign up to get daily “special offers”. The business model of Groupon is such that when people buy a “special offer voucher” to use on a deal, Groupon shares the revenue with the service provider that is providing the special offer.
Interestingly enough their arrangement is such that if somebody buys a special offer voucher but then subsequently doesn’t use the voucher then Groupon keep all the revenue.
In simple terms an IPO is where the owners of a private unquoted company offer a proportion of their shares to the general public.
Let’s look at some of the figures.
A relatively small proportion of the company was offered in the IPO (just over 5%) but $700 million was raised. This values the company at nearly $13 billion. Not bad for a business that started just over 1,000 days ago.
In the past, other tech companies that have undertaken an IPO include Google who raised an impressive $1.7 billion back in 2004. Since then Google has gone on to become a $200 billion company but will Groupon grow to such heady heights?
To me it seems that whilst the Groupon business model has so far been successful it’s a fairly limited business model.
After all, it’s simply offering discount vouchers and the business model would surely be easy to copy and if one of the tech big boys such as Google or Facebook decided to really push a similar voucher scheme Groupon could have real problems.
One of the challenges the Groupon business model has is that the suppliers that sign up to offer discounts on Groupon are doing so in the hope that their classic their discount voucher will be a classic “loss leader” and will result in repeat purchases by the bargain hunter customers.
Figures are not available as to how many of these bargain hunters do more than simply purchase the discount voucher and then never undertake a second purchase from the supplier but my guess is that it could be a fairly significant number.
So, in summary, a business model that is relatively easy to copy and has limited barriers to entry combined with a customer base who are always looking for the next bargain (which may well be with another discount voucher company). This seems to me to be a risky investment.
Luckily for Groupon a lot of investors took a different view to me and at the close of the first day of trading the share price had risen to $26 from a launch price of $20.
Only time will tell though whether the IPO was indeed a great daily deal…
Published on: 06 Jun 2011
It seems that Deloitte has had a spot of bother in dealing with one of its Chinese clients.
When they initially won the audit for Longtop they were no doubt very pleased.
Longtop Financial Technologies Ltd., to give it its full name, is a Hong Kong-based maker of financial software. In 2007 it raised $210 million in a US IPO underwritten by Goldman Sachs and Deutsche Bank.
Things haven’t been going too well recently though. Their share price has plunged by 56% since last November reducing the company’s market value by more than $1 billion.
They have also just lost their auditors as Deloitte has just resigned.
Auditor resignations aren’t that unusual but in Deloitte’s resignation letter that was submitted to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission there are a few items which to put them in non technical language, sound “extremely dodgy”.
The full resignation letter submitted to the SEC can be found here but some extracts of the letter showing the highlights (or lowlights) of some items that Deloitte identified at Longtop are as follows (note that the bold emphasis on certain words was made by us):
[Start of extract from resignation letter]
As part of the process for auditing the Company’s financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2011, we determined that, in regard to bank confirmations, it was appropriate to perform follow up visits to certain banks. These audit steps were recently performed and identified a number of very serious defects including: statements by bank staff that their bank had no record of certain transactions; confirmation replies previously received were said to be false; significant differences in deposit balances reported by the bank staff compared with the amounts identified in previously received confirmations (and in the books and records of the Group); and significant bank borrowings reported by bank staff not identified in previously received confirmations (and not recorded in the books and records of the Group).
In the light of this, a formal second round of bank confirmation was initiated on 17 May. Within hours however, as a result of intervention by the Company’s officials including the Chief Operating Officer, the confirmation process was stopped amid serious and troubling new developments including: calls to banks by the Company asserting that Deloitte was not their auditor; seizure by the Company’s staff of second round bank confirmation documentation on bank premises; threats to stop our staff leaving the Company premises unless they allowed the Company to retain our audit files then on the premises; and then seizure by the Company of certain of our working papers.
In that connection, we must insist that you promptly return our documents.
[End of extract of resignation letter]
I have to say that my initial observations are that Deloitte did the right thing in resigning!
Longtop however have released a press release in connection with the resignation and included the statement that they have “initiated a search for a new auditor.”
Somehow I’m not convinced that the other top auditing companies will be rushing out to win Longtop as a client.
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Published on: 16 May 2011
What was founded 8 years ago by 2 entrepreneurs and was last week bought by Microsoft for $8.5 billion?
Little did Swedish entrepreneur Niklas Zennstrom and his Danish colleague Janus Friis realise that the Skype product they introduced back in 2003 would be worth a mighty $8.5 billion 8 years later.
Skype, whose name comes from the abbreviation of the initial project name of “Sky peer-to-peer” has turned into the most successful online voice and video phone service.
It has over 650m users with the vast majority of users only use the free call facilities.
Even allowing for its success in terms of the numbers that use it, it’s still a pretty hefty amount that Microsoft paid for it.
If you look at the history of the company you’ll see that Zennstrom and Friis founded it in 2003, it was then purchased by eBay for $3.1 billion in 2005 in the anticipation that it would be integrated into their online auction site to help people negotiate over their purchases.
This wasn’t a huge success and eBay cut their losses when they sold it 4 years later to a group of investors with the company valued at $2.75 billion.
The investors that bought it from eBay though have done pretty well.
With Skype being valued at $2.75 billion in 2009 here we are 2 years later with Microsoft buying it for $8.5 billion – a pretty healthy return of approximately 300% over a couple of years.
If you look at the figures behind Skype then some people will argue that Microsoft have paid over the odds for Skype.
In summary, the latest reported annual figures for Skype are:
Sales: $860 million
Profit (eh, actually it’s a loss): ($7 million)
Amount Microsoft paid for it: $8.5 billion (or $ 8,500 million)
So, Microsoft paid $8,500 million for a company whose most recent reported annual results showed a loss of $7 million.
These figures clearly show that Microsoft are hoping to create a lot of value from the acquisition of Skype and possible integrations discussed include using Skype within Microsoft Outlook and their computer game XBox.
This is a big amount of money to recover though and only time will tell whether the largest acquisition in Microsoft’s history will turn out to be a good call or not.
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Published on: 28 Jan 2011
The professional networking site LinkedIn yesterday announced plans to raise up to $175 million (£110 million) by way of a public offering.
Many of you may well be members of LinkedIn and in terms of registered users it has been very successful since it started back in 2002.
Financial information about the company though has historically been difficult to obtain as such information was kept away from the public domain.
The IPO document released yesterday however provides some interesting figures.
For example, LinkedIn gains a new member every second and now has more than 90 million total members worldwide.
Although the majority of LinkedIn users are subscribers that sign up for the free version the company does generate significant income. It was able to double its 2009 revenues to $161 million in the first nine months of 2010. The $161 million can be broken down as follows:
- Hiring solutions (job listings): $66 million (41% of revenue)
- Marketing solutions (advertising): $51 million (32% of revenue)
- Premium subscriptions: $44 million (27% of revenue)
2010 was the first year that LinkedIn was profitable with a net income after tax of $10 million.
Cash at hand as at 30 September 2010 was $90 million whilst total assets were $197 million.
The IPO document also has to provide details of shareholders with more than a 5% stake.
The founder and chairman, Reid Hoffman owns 21.4% of the company together with his wife whilst 3 venture capital firms own approximately 39% between them.
The shareholders should do very well out of the IPO and indeed Mr Hoffman is no stranger to successful e-businesses having previously been an executive at PayPal.
If you’ve got a relaxed day at the office and a love of detail then the full document submitted to the US Securities and Exchange Commission can be found here.
Published on: 27 Oct 2010
The bookmakers that were seen on many a high street seem to be gradually disappearing.
People are still gambling though but the delivery method of the industry is switching to internet based gambling rather than placing bets at a physical bookmakers.
Ten years ago former professional gambler Andrew Black and former JP Morgan trader Edward Wray started up a betting business that addressed matters in a new novel way.
For years the typical approach to gambling had been where a bookmaker set the odds and it was up to the individual gambler whether or not he or she accepted these odds and placed the bet.
Betfair pioneered the concept of person to person betting whereby individuals bet against each other rather than the bookmaker. Betfair provide the platform for the betting and take a commission on each transaction.
A gambler will say that they want to bet on a certain event happening (or not happening) and if another gambler wants to accept the bet then the transaction goes ahead. Betfair provide the mechanism for this to happen.
This is known as a betting exchange and is a great example of where first mover advantage really counts.
In order for the business model to work there has to be a critical mass of gamblers that are willing to offer and accept bets. Without this critical mass the business simply would not work.
Another example of where first mover advantage has been critical to business success is in online auctions. After all, who are the main competitors to eBay?
Back to Betfair though and it certainly is a good business model. Risk for example, is nicely reduced as the company is not standing to lose on the bet but instead takes a nice commission on each transaction.
So how well has it done over the last 10 years?
The answer to this can be found last Friday when 15% of the company was floated on the London stock market and the company was valued at £1.4bn.
Betfair’s advisors were some of the biggest names in the business and included Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley and Barclays Capital to name a few.
Amongst other things their job was to identify the price range of the proposed offer. Initial indications were that it would be between £11 to £14. The final initial public offering (IPO) price was set at £13.
With some of the top investment bankers involved and Betfair being in the gambling industry (which is not necessarily renowned for being generous to gamblers) it was something of a surprise to some people to see the share price rise by nearly 20% in the first day of initial trading after the IPO. After all, this could imply that the IPO was undervalued if there was such an initial jump in price.
I wonder what odds you would have got from Betfair that the IPO share price would rise by 20% on the first day of trading?
Published on: 25 Oct 2010
Its ownership structure is dominated by News Corporation, the transnational media conglomerate owned by Rupert Murdoch, whose other ventures include numerous newspapers and Fox studios in the USA.
It’s fair to say that Rupert Murdoch is a controversial figure.
A review of the most recent financial statements shows that News Corporation presently owns approximately 39.1% of the shares of BSkyB. The next two largest shareholders own 5.02% and 3.01% of the votes in the company.
In other words, resisting the might of News Corporation to impose its will on BSkyB would require something more akin to a peasants’ revolt than a more standard company vote in the AGM.
IFRS 3 defines a subsidiary as an entity that is controlled by another entity.
Looking at the evidence, it would appear that the 39.1% ownership would be enough to give control of BSkyB to News Corporation, on grounds that it would be almost impossible to resist decisions favoured by such a dominant investor.
One such decision was appointing James Murdoch, son of Rupert Murdoch as chairman of BSkyB. Lots of investors didn’t like this, but Murdoch took the helm of the company.
News Corporation produces its financial statements under US GAAP and has always consolidated BSkyB using the equity method, as an associate.
Under IFRS, it would have been arguable that full consolidation as a subsidiary would have presented a more true and fair view, as IFRS uses more principles based recognition of control than US GAAP.
However, a shock recently came to News Corporation, when it tried to increase its holding from 39.1% to a clearly controlling 61%.
The board of BSkyB refused to agree with the chairman that an offer of 700p per share should be accepted. The board defied its biggest investor and said that they would recommend refusal of any offer less than 800p. This appears to have come rather as a surprise to the dominant Murdoch family, who show signs of thinking of BSkyB as their fiefdom.
It’s just a nice example of when apparent control is not control and thus how to be cautious in deciding when to consolidate a company as a subsidiary, even if it generally does everything you tell it to. If there appears to be a chance of the other investors saying “enough” and refusing to give into your will, it’s not a subsidiary.
IFRS 911: Accounting for environmental catastrophes? The BP oil spill illustrates a number of issues in IFRS. Here are just the first few we thought of..
Published on: 18 Jun 2010
The failure of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform has been a catastrophe for lots of people. Stakeholders ranging from individual fishermen through to major shareholders have all been severely impacted.
Being natural accountants though, we couldn’t help but think how this would affect the accounts, given that it may well inspire some future exam questions.
The most obvious effect is the impairment of the well itself. Only the hardware is currently recognised in assets, since the value of the reserves is too uncertain to be recognised as an asset. Rigs cost vast amounts of money however and this is a significant impairment.
Similar drilling arrangements will also require major safety upgrades. This would cause an impairment, but no provision, since BP could always simply close down a well.
Then there is goodwill. BP grew to its vast size by organic growth and by acquisition. This activity may well have been through an acquired subsidiary. This is pretty solid external evidence of an impairment and so goodwill must be written off. Lots of goodwill needs to be written off.
Fines are a near certainty. The White House has been careful to ensure that the world knows that the $20 billion payment to a trust to settle damages is not a full and final settlement. This means that an estimate of likely costs will need to be made and disclosed in a very transparent way. BP and BP’s lawyers would probably prefer to avoid that transparency of how much they think this is going to cost them.
A number of years ago, IAS 10 was amended to require that only dividends that were legally required to be paid could be shown as liabilities. Many people commented on how this was not true and fair, since it was unthinkable that large companies could ever change their minds about dividends that had already been proposed. Well, BP changes that a little, given that they have agreed to skip this year’s dividend to shareholders, in response to huge pressure from wider stakeholders such as affected communities and the President of the United States. It turns out that companies do sometimes change their minds about dividends before the cheques get sent out!
What about recoverability of insurance proceeds? That one is simple; BP did not have insurance we believe. Ouch. Dare we breathe the words “going concern”?
Published on: 25 Jan 2010
Agency theory (included in papers such as ACCA F9) occurs when one party (the principal), employs another party (the agent), to perform a task or tasks on their behalf. Within this theory there is always a danger that the objectives of the two parties may not coincide and there may be problems with what is known as goal congruence.
Typically agency theory would apply to the relationship between shareholders and management. However, there is an argument that a form of agency theory could apply between management as the principal and an employee as the agent.
I’m a keen follower of football (soccer) and the contracts of professional players are becoming ever more complicated. In the “old days” the contracts would be very simple affairs with a monthly salary, a time limit to the contracts and maybe a team bonus if the team won a competition.
Nowadays football is big business. For example, Cristiano Ronaldo’s move last year from Manchester United to Real Madrid was for a new world record in terms of transfer fees (£80m) and his annual remuneration from Real Madrid alone will be in the region of £11m per year.
I’ve no idea what Ronaldo’s contract is like but my guess is that most professional football contracts have various measures built in to ensure that there is goal congruence.
Ideas for items that could be included within football contracts to help goal congruence include:
– Bonuses based on number of games played (i.e. the player will only get these if he is performing well and is in the team),
– Bonuses based on international appearances (this is independent confirmation that he is performing well)
– Penalty provisions for undertaking activities that could cause injuries (e.g. bungee jumping or extreme sports).
All of the above would help in ensuring goal congruence.
Always keep an eye open in real life for any situations where goal congruence is present. If you can link real life situations you come across with the exam syllabus it will help you retain the knowledge needed for exam success.
Published on: 29 Nov 2009
F9 and P4 students should be aware that there are a variety of ways to raise finance (see chapter 4 of our free F9 ExPress notes. One method is by way of a rights issue where a company issues new shares and sells them to existing shareholders. Shareholders are not obliged to buy them but merely have the “right” to buy them. By being given the “right” they have the security of knowing that their shareholding won’t be diluted by shares being issued to other shareholders without first being offered them.
The Lloyds Banking Group has recently announced the UK’s largest ever rights issue and the bank hopes to raise over £13 billion. Press reports state that the main reason behind the rights issue is to raise sufficient funds to avoid the bank having to take part in the government’s banking insurance scheme that was set up after the recent banking troubles in the UK.
This is going to be an interesting one to watch. Lloyds has nearly 3 million shareholders with the majority being private shareholders. Whether or not these shareholders will be willing to take up these rights remains to be seen. They are due to meet to approve it this coming Thursday. In the run up to the exam though I’m sure students will have more to worry about than the outcome of this vote but make sure you’re aware of the various finance raising methods for the exam!