Absolutist approaches to ethics involve the belief that certain moral values or principles are absolute and unchanging, regardless of the situation or context. This means that these moral values or principles are considered to be universally applicable and should be followed in all circumstances.
Absolutist approaches to ethics often emphasize the importance of following moral rules or principles for their own sake, rather than for the consequences that may result from following or violating them. They may also place a strong emphasis on the inherent goodness or badness of actions, rather than considering the consequences of those actions.
One example of an absolutist approach to ethics is the belief that it is always wrong to take the life of another human being. This belief is based on the principle that human life is valuable and should be protected, and that taking a human life is inherently wrong, regardless of the circumstances.
Another example of an absolutist approach to ethics is the belief that it is always wrong to lie. This belief is based on the principle that honesty and truthfulness are virtues that should be upheld in all situations, and that lying is inherently wrong, regardless of the consequences.
Other examples of absolutist approaches to ethics include the belief that it is always wrong to steal or to cheat, or the belief that it is always wrong to discriminate against someone on the basis of their race, gender, or sexual orientation.
Deontological ethics is a type of absolutist approach to ethics that holds that certain moral duties or rules, such as the duty to tell the truth or to respect the autonomy of others, are absolute and must always be followed, regardless of the consequences. Deontological ethics is based on the idea that moral actions are those that are in accordance with moral duties or rules, and that the inherent value of an action lies in its adherence to these moral duties or rules, rather than in its consequences.
Absolutist approaches to ethics can be contrasted with relativist approaches, which hold that moral values and principles are relative to the culture, society, or individual, and may change depending on the context or situation.